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No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
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To put it succinctly, a Forex card is a well agreed upon travel card with the frequent travellers in mind. As with fuel cards, the purpose of a Forex card is quite particular and you can understand the perks of it as easily swiping it at foreign POS accepting retailers and restaurants. If you are still unsure about the ways to make use of your Orient Exchange Forex card, feel free to reach out to us any time or day through the mail.
Please check out Orientexchange.in for further services in the foreign currency exchange market. And, do share your feedback on the experience you had with us.
submitted by sudeepkurup to u/sudeepkurup [link] [comments]

Buy Forex Cards Online in Lodhi Road-Delhi- Orient Exchange.

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Obtaining foreign currency for tailored purposes has never been easy, thanks to Orient exchange and its dedicated services. One of the services is the 'world-renowned' Forex cards services, known for its best rates, wide acceptability and surprise benefits at POS stations around the globe. But, you must already know all that, that could be the reason you are already here, guided through the magic of search engines and your expert navigation and filtering through a list of foreign currency exchange providers.
Why are you here?
You are here for a single purpose and that's to buy currency online in the form of Forex card so that your trip is easier to handle and the overall offshore travel experience is a breeze. So, feel free to glance through the countries with which we have strong ties to provide you with a Forex card to them. Having a long and sustained relationship with these offshore countries enables us to give you the best rates and offers so that you enjoy a long and fulfilling two-way relationship with the countries and play a crucial part in keeping their economy boosted with your timed and calculated expenditure.
When is the best time to buy Forex?
Of course, prior to travel is the most preferred time by money to get a Forex card. But, if you are financially savvy, you may buy your forex card 60 days prior to your overseas trip and start accumulating forex on to your card as and when rates are favourable. So, this is for you.
Check our dedicated forex card page here to keep yourself updated on the recent changes in rates for the multiple countries we provide the Forex cards to. By being yourself dedicated on the lookout you will be able to track the rise and fall of the micro differences which has the potential to play a crucial changer in the long run of dealing with foreign currency exchanges, believe it we are in the market for the long haul and we know better in the industry to serve them the exact and updated rates to our customers.
Got the card what now?
Congrats on getting your Orient Exchange Forex card. But, you are not so clear on the possibilities or applications of the card in the most prudent manner, what to do? Don't worry, we are here to guide you through the process. A forex card is just like any other debit card, but with added benefits. If you are to use your domestic credit or debit card (beyond normal transactions) in foreign countries without going through the minute details from you are a bank, you are liable to pay hefty usage charges and taxes. Read the manual enclosed with the card for better understanding.
To put it succinctly, a Forex card is a well agreed upon travel card with the frequent travellers in mind. As with fuel cards, the purpose of a Forex card is quite particular and you can understand the perks of it as easily swiping it at foreign POS accepting retailers and restaurants. If you are still unsure about the ways to make use of your Orient Exchange Forex card, feel free to reach out to us any time or day through the mail.
Please check out Orientexchange.in for further services in the foreign currency exchange market. And, do share your feedback on the experience you had with us.
submitted by sudeepkurup to u/sudeepkurup [link] [comments]

Buy Forex Cards online in Delhi- Best Foreign currency Exchange in Delhi

Obtaining foreign currency for tailored purposes has never been easy, thanks to Orient exchange and it's dedicated services. One of the services is the 'world-renowned' Forex cards services, known for its best rates, wide acceptability and surprise benefits at POS stations around the globe. But, you must already know all that, that could be the reason you are already here, guided through the magic of search engines and your expert navigation and filtering through a list of foreign currency exchange providers.
Why are you here?
You are here for a single purpose and that's to buy currency online in the form of Forex card so that your trip is easier to handle and the overall offshore travel experience is a breeze. So, feel free to glance through the countries with which we have strong ties to provide you with a Forex card to them. Having a long and sustained relationship with these offshore countries enables us to give you the best rates and offers so that you enjoy a long and fulfilling two-way relationship with the countries and play a crucial part in keeping their economy boosted with your timed and calculated expenditure.
When is the best time to buy Forex?
Of course, prior to travel is the most preferred time by money to get a Forex card. But, if you are financially savvy, you may buy your forex card 60 days prior to your overseas trip and start accumulating forex on to your card as and when rates are favourable. So, this is for you.
Check our dedicated forex card page here to keep yourself updated on the recent changes in rates for the multiple countries we provide the Forex cards to. By being yourself dedicated on the lookout you will be able to track the rise and fall of the micro differences which has the potential to play a crucial changer in the long run of dealing with foreign currency exchanges, believe it we are in the market for the long haul and we know better in the industry to serve them the exact and updated rates to our customers.
Got the card what now?
Congrats on getting your Orient Exchange Forex card. But, you are not so clear on the possibilities or applications of the card in the most prudent manner, what to do? Don't worry, we are here to guide you through the process. A forex card is just like any other debit card, but with added benefits. If you are to use your domestic credit or debit card (beyond normal transactions) in foreign countries without going through the minute details from you are a bank, you are liable to pay hefty usage charges and taxes. Read the manual enclosed with the card for better understanding.
To put it succinctly, a Forex card is a well agreed upon travel card with the frequent travellers in mind. As with fuel cards, the purpose of a Forex card is quite particular and you can understand the perks of it as easily swiping it at foreign POS accepting retailers and restaurants. If you are still unsure about the ways to make use of your Orient Exchange Forex card, feel free to reach out to us any time or day through the mail.
Please check out Orientexchange.in for further services in the foreign currency exchange market. And, do share your feedback on the experience you had with us.
submitted by sudeepkurup to u/sudeepkurup [link] [comments]

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Obtaining foreign currency for tailored purposes has never been easy, thanks to Orient exchange and its dedicated services. One of the services is the 'world-renowned' Forex cards services, known for its best rates, wide acceptability and surprise benefits at POS stations around the globe. But, you must already know all that, that could be the reason you are already here, guided through the magic of search engines and your expert navigation and filtering through a list of foreign currency exchange providers.
Why are you here?
You are here for a single purpose and that's to buy currency online in the form of Forex card so that your trip is easier to handle and the overall offshore travel experience is a breeze. So, feel free to glance through the countries with which we have strong ties to provide you with a Forex card to them. Having a long and sustained relationship with these offshore countries enables us to give you the best rates and offers so that you enjoy a long and fulfilling two-way relationship with the countries and play a crucial part in keeping their economy boosted with your timed and calculated expenditure.
When is the best time to buy Forex?
Of course, prior to travel is the most preferred time by money to get a Forex card. But, if you are financially savvy, you may buy your forex card 60 days prior to your overseas trip and start accumulating forex on to your card as and when rates are favourable. So, this is for you.
Check our dedicated forex card page here to keep yourself updated on the recent changes in rates for the multiple countries we provide the Forex cards to. By being yourself dedicated on the lookout you will be able to track the rise and fall of the micro differences which has the potential to play a crucial changer in the long run of dealing with foreign currency exchanges, believe it we are in the market for the long haul and we know better in the industry to serve them the exact and updated rates to our customers.
Got the card what now?
Congrats on getting your Orient Exchange Forex card. But, you are not so clear on the possibilities or applications of the card in the most prudent manner, what to do? Don't worry, we are here to guide you through the process. A forex card is just like any other debit card, but with added benefits. If you are to use your domestic credit or debit card (beyond normal transactions) in foreign countries without going through the minute details from you are a bank, you are liable to pay hefty usage charges and taxes. Read the manual enclosed with the card for better understanding.
To put it succinctly, a Forex card is a well agreed upon travel card with the frequent travellers in mind. As with fuel cards, the purpose of a Forex card is quite particular and you can understand the perks of it as easily swiping it at foreign POS accepting retailers and restaurants. If you are still unsure about the ways to make use of your Orient Exchange Forex card, feel free to reach out to us any time or day through the mail.
Please check out Orientexchange.in for further services in the foreign currency exchange market. And, do share your feedback on the experience you had with us.
submitted by sudeepkurup to u/sudeepkurup [link] [comments]

PAUL, JIM AND ROY Q&A 26 JULY 2018

PAUL, JIM AND ROY Q&A 26 JULY 2018
https://preview.redd.it/8t2d8ujwzgc11.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=cd13c50961d8839b7553a489743ea3c8d478306d
Dear members,
Here is a summary in Q&A format for the impromptu session Paul, Jim and Roy did in an unofficial trade.io supporters group on 26 July 2018 which should allay most if not all fears and questions.
Compliance & Documents Needed For Withdrawals:
First and foremost, we're not fortune tellers, but from our experience with other regulated companies in similar asset classes to crypto, like FX, CFD's, etc. regulation is coming and in many places already here as we've all seen.
We're choosing to get out in front of this, so that when it does happen and the companies that are being completely negligent in their compliance and regulatory duties are getting pinched, we're in a good position. With that said, though, we need to be cognizant of competition and not be too strict so that we can't compete with the cowboy exchanges in the near term.
With that said, let's tackle the KYC issue upon withdrawal first.
The process for withdrawals is very simple, and currently there is no tiered structure...meaning its the same process regardless if you want to withdrawal 1 satoshi or 1K BTC. This is in place for many reasons, as it will be easier to start onboarding clients once our fiat to crypto module is in place, and also grandfathering people into the LP.
When withdrawing you'll need to fill out Form A if you are an individual, and Form A is simply saying the info you're providing is true and accurate and you're not a US citizen. Very standard.
Then you provide an ID and Proof of Residence.
NOTHING needs to be certified and NOTHING needs to be translated to English, as we have a fully staffed multilingual compliance department. Apologies if the instructions were confusing, as we're in the process of making some tweaks to make it less confusing.
KYC/Withdrawal process is the minimum possible but still following regulatory guidelines.
Q: R documents provided confidential ?
A: 100% and securely stored.
Q : Restricted countries?
A : Only countries that are restricted are OFAC countries and the dangerous country known as the US.
Q: also i wanted to confirm, as u have already partnered with selfkey , will there be a personal wallet for each user at your end??? or a combine wallet ?? will there be any fee the e walllet service
A: Selfkey won't take place for some time, so put that to the side for now.
Q : So maybe you shall delete current FAQ in profile section? Simply because it's too scary for all.
A : We'll def beef it up to make it much clearer.
Q: Before moving, Any different form for companies withdrawing ? And kyc
A: Yes, good point, company withdrawals have a diff set of docs, that can be found within the guidelines, But still to my knowledge, company docs need not be certified or translated to English either.
Q : Any different form for companies withdrawing ?
A : Yes, good point, company withdrawals have a diff set of docs, that can be found within the guidelines
But still to my knowledge, company docs need not be certified or translated to English either.
Q : TIO price
A : For better or worse, we all keep an eye on price of TIO. The employees and staff have TIO just like the TIOnauts....so we all have the same interests here.
With that in mind, please remember there are nearly 90M TIO in circulation. The volume today (or most days for that matter) is 200K or a quarter of 1% of TIO in circulation.
So while its natural to see, say a 5% decrease in price, you can't ignore this is taking place on literally no volume and off of trade.io exchange. The price is being dictated by bulls**t exchanges like BitForex which is complete hocus pocus.
In order for TIO to get to the BNB levels we need liquidity and participants. We fully expect once we're up and running in full force on our exchange and TIO is limited to that, we'll be in good shape, in our opinion.
Please note this is not a recommendation to buy or sell TIO, but rather pointing out some factual information.
You wouldn't be able to sell 25K without cracking the price. In order for TIO to get to the BNB levels you need liquidity and participants. We fully expect once we're up and running in full force on our exchange and TIO is limited to that, we'll be in good shape.
Q : Exchange
A : It's not perfect, far from it. However, to say its not light years better than the beta which didn't even have working market orders at the time, and a fraction of features that are out now is simply inaccurate. I'll be happy to post what the demo beta looked like at launch. Obviously this isn't something to be proud of, but again, I do want to stick up for our devs just a little bit here as I know they are busting their butts.
With that said, any remaining mods are being tended to around the clock and I'm personally updating everyone every 12 hours. For example, there were issues with saving presets, data issues, etc. have been rectified. Next on the list is BCH & USDT. Once bugs are fixed, then enhancements come that we've been tracking and logging.
Dev's are tidying up any residual issues from launch, like BCH & USDT. Dev's btw, are more than 14 (as I saw that number somewhere), we now have over 30 devs around the globe. So rest assured there is not 1 dev in the basement making Pinnochio 🙂
On the to immediate do list after the tidying:
  1. Adding additional users, of course
  2. Adding the airdrop tokens
  3. Adding additional tokens & blockchains
So those 3 items are on the the "get it done" list. Also will be working on margin trading as well which is going to be a key initiative (i.e. our friends at Bitmex.)
Q : Why do we see trades on inactive assets ?
A : We have algos firing in tiny trades to create charts for now. Until there is adequate flow, this is necessary to create clean looking charts.
Q : So LP is technically already sort of functioning then?
A : Sort of, its a bit more complicated than that.
Q : When traded on only one exchange same prob. How can we say it s not being manipulated by the exchange itself
Non tionauts might think that way..
A : Manipulate usually conotates a negative, not sure why having TIO only on trade.io would lead to a negative.
Q : Won't ppl added in 2 batch miss LP start?]
Tied in to this. Some people will surely complain about the 30 day no fee incentive. Claiming (and rightly so) they did not avail themselves of it since they were restricted
A : We're def not committed to 30 days only, as you rightly said, it won't be fair, if we only open it up to say 5K people in the first 30 days.
Q : when will there be bots placing and filling order book
A : Once there is a larger number of users on the platform.
Q : Set deadlines, dates for things to get done
A : I will refrain from setting deadlines, as we haven't exactly been the greatest at meeting deadlines.
Q : Adding additional users
A : For adding additional users, its going to be a shoot first ask questions later tactic. So as we add, emails will go out, and we will alert the community. Its in everyones best interest that we allow the 20k+ on the waiting list and open it up to the masses ASAP though for 101 reasons. We're all on the same page there gang.
Q : Will you have a public list on which features are being worked on? (Not deadlines, just a list for poeple to know what to expect next)
A : I will have them in my twice daily updates (Paul).
Q : LP
A : As I have said earlier this week, we have been working closely with regulators to modify the LP which will maximize it's utility AND benefit to TIO hodlers. The current structure was based on the regulatory guidelines during our ICO and is expected to change in the very near future. (Roy)
We have been working with regulators and jurisdictions with the goal of making the LP TIO only. As alluded to before, things are going well and if they continue this is the direction of the LP.
Q : will there be a way to calculate taxes, or is it still soon to have an answer to that?
A : Taxes are the responsibility of the LP participant. there are dozens of jurisdictions which have their own unique tax laws and requirements which would be an incredible undertaking to address for all our users. We have been approached with a few technology providers who are working with accounting firms to address this very issue. should we discover a convenient solution for our clients then of course we integrate a solution that is conveinent for all our clients to calculate/estimate their tax liabilities for their respective juridictions.
Q : Can you give us estimated revenues on ICO consulting business?
A : It is important to understand the ICO Consulting pricing model and revenue structure for this. Our consulting services require a small upfront engagement fee to onboard the client. The majority of the revenue is not collected or recognized until the ICO client has completed their ICO as the pricing model is performanced based much of the time on amount of funds raised and tokens issued. which means, revenue from consulting engagement is delayed 3-4 months until the ICO has ended for that consulting client.
Q : Provided tiers remain as is, the price of TIO will most probably plateu at some point (I imagine pretty quickly). What's the plan with the tiers? Will these be dynamic at some point?
A : Tiers will change as price of TIO changes, also with regards to TIO price plateauing, pls keep in mind that while the LP is one major utilization of TIO, there are others to keep TIO in demand. The LP will not be the sole dictator of price/demand of TIO.
Q : With higher and higher TIO price the likelyhood is that less and less people will be interested to buy as "the train would have left the station" Imagine when TIO is $1, you'd need 2,500$ for every tier. Imagine if it reaches 10$
A : Again, the tier structure will remain "flexible" as to allow for the most participants possible while at the same type not diluting. The original plan to adjust the tier is based on the price and volume of TIO. We are contiuously monitoring this to make the LP fair and benficial to our community.
Q : In my opinion, the model of having the LP with multiple currencies (not only TIO) is a much better one, as participants will have multiple diversified assets portofolio
A : It's subjective really. I believe TIO only LP will boost the token much better. That's what we believe as well. Having someone contribute 1K BTC and getting profits from the LP doesn't help TIO at all, it only helps their pockets.
Q : when do new version of calculator appear?
A : Once the terms of service have been finalized and the official announcemnet has been made.
Q : Will the daily profits automatically be included in the next (successive) days' calculations? Or will they be deposited in a separate wallet outside the LP
A : Profit from today will be put in your wallet pro rata tomorrow, and so on.
Q: please tell what will happen to leftover (for the person having teir lvl less than 100)
A: trade.io keeps it. If the participants don't maximize their LP contribtutions that is their discretion. we are not forcing the min teir structure to be 25K as this would not be fair. We structured the LP to be fair for the masses and understand that not everyone can maximize their contribution. However, if LP participants do not max out their teir level we are a for profit company and any leftovers will help us spearhead additional initives and partnerships to increase the utility of TIO and benefit the community. There are direct and indirect benefits of the LP here.
Q: Will the LP be available before the end of September?
A: I refuse to provide a deadline...don't make me....:) We stink at hitting deadlines, its a tough biz in tech. We're busting our butts though to get the LP up and running.
Q : well, just imagined that dynamic model and it seems that in that model rich become richer and poor get poorer. Am i wrong?
A : With the flexibility for us to change the tiers we can control this better so that doesn't happen. The last thing we want is to go against our core values and placate to the whales. That's not why we created the LP. the LP was created to redistribute wealth in an easy an accessible way to the masses. What benefit does it give our community if only the rich become richer?
Q : will there be an auto-reinvest option?
A : Yes, 100%, like a money market sweep type mechanism.
Q : On window for LP withdrawal
A : You can opt out at any time, and it will be automatically removed at the next "roll over" similar to if you have traded FX with swaps.
Q : The auto-reinvest will probably hit the tier limit right (unless you're in the top tier which is currently limitless). What happens then?
A : You'll be automatically bumped to the next tier
Q : will top tier be capped on revenues shared on the start, or this will be a possibility for the future?
A : Top tier is capped in terms of % but not in terms of quantity, is that what you're asking? There has always been a cap to the %....its never been open ended. we are potentially paying out 55% of the LP, in actuality, not 50
Q : but we talked earlier that there will be an option to re-invest.. now given that the payouts will be done in other crypto.. will that option be able to convert let's say BTC into TIo and add to the LP automatically ?? if that's the case, then we''ll automatically move to the next tier.. set and forget
A : We can have a bot that auto buys TIO, we can add that later to reinvest. A later feature would be the concept of "dust" to do this reinvestment. .
Q : Will the daily profits automatically be included in the next (successive) days' calculations? Or will they be deposited in a separate wallet IP plan using dust later?
A : They would need to be reinvested to move up. initially, this would have to be a bit manual, but we are planning a DRIP plan using dust later.
Q : Non-TIO assets and caps
A : For non TIO, there needs to be caps so people dont do 2500 TIO and US$1 million. When and if we allow non-TIO in LP. AND non-TIO will not have same multipliers, but as an enhancement. We are not trying to fuck you or game you in any way. Over time, we want to enable people to make money loaning BTC, ETH, USD, etc so other can go short. Returns on that will not be like TIO. We launch with TIO only, later we present the plan for other assets. On we have something we all like, we can move ahead.
Q : LP top tier caps
A : There will be a cap on top tier as well, above where our current largest outside investors are.
Q : so Jim.. shifting gears a bit here, can you talk to us about the regulatory side of things.. where do we stand? what're the future plans with regulators? will TIO be listed as a utility token or a security? anything you can share with us in terms of regluations would be great.. I know there's a lot of confusion with the SEC right now, but any thoughts or undergoing discussions?
A : All cryptos have different classifications in different jurisdictions. We are in Switzerland, where we are a utility. US might treat us diff, as they see everything as a security. Malta has another view. This applies to ALL cryptos, not just TIO, every jurisdiction is different. To say any token is a security or utility is not accurate. Dealing with customers for exchanges is a different regulatory issue.
On the exchange regulatory side, we are working on multiple jurisdictions. HK, US, Malta, etc. In Malta, we have co setup already. Just waiting for app process to open.
Q : Is there any chance that leverage trading will be added to the exchange?
A : yes, on the priority list.
Q : Once we lock our TIOs to the LP, adn after a few months we want to remove them (loss or profit does not matter) do we get back teh same ammount of TIOs even if the price of TIO increases?
Lest say I put 25,000 TIO, with TIO price of $1, adn wehn I decide to take them off the price of TIO is 2$, do I still take 25,000 TIO back or 12,500 TIO ?
A : Yes #TIO in = #TIO out unless the LP has a massive loss that wipes out our blanace sheet and TIO reserve which stands in front of you.
Conclusion : We are going back to whipping the slaves in the salt mines.
submitted by Scarlet_TIO to u/Scarlet_TIO [link] [comments]

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Why are you here?
You are here for a single purpose and that's to buy currency online in the form of Forex card so that your trip is easier to handle and the overall offshore travel experience is a breeze. So, feel free to glance through the countries with which we have strong ties to provide you with a Forex card to them. Having a long and sustained relationship with these offshore countries enables us to give you the best rates and offers so that you enjoy a long and fulfilling two-way relationship with the countries and play a crucial part in keeping their economy boosted with your timed and calculated expenditure.
When is the best time to buy Forex?
Of course, prior to travel is the most preferred time by money to get a Forex card. But, if you are financially savvy, you may buy your forex card 60 days prior to your overseas trip and start accumulating forex on to your card as and when rates are favourable. So, this is for you.
Check our dedicated forex card page here to keep yourself updated on the recent changes in rates for the multiple countries we provide the Forex cards to. By being yourself dedicated on the lookout you will be able to track the rise and fall of the micro differences which has the potential to play a crucial changer in the long run of dealing with foreign currency exchanges, believe it we are in the market for the long haul and we know better in the industry to serve them the exact and updated rates to our customers.
Got the card what now?
Congrats on getting your Orient Exchange Forex card. But, you are not so clear on the possibilities or applications of the card in the most prudent manner, what to do? Don't worry, we are here to guide you through the process. A forex card is just like any other debit card, but with added benefits. If you are to use your domestic credit or debit card (beyond normal transactions) in foreign countries without going through the minute details from you are a bank, you are liable to pay hefty usage charges and taxes. Read the manual enclosed with the card for better understanding.
To put it succinctly, a Forex card is a well agreed upon travel card with the frequent travellers in mind. As with fuel cards, the purpose of a Forex card is quite particular and you can understand the perks of it as easily swiping it at foreign POS accepting retailers and restaurants. If you are still unsure about the ways to make use of your Orient Exchange Forex card, feel free to reach out to us any time or day through the mail.
Please check out Orientexchange.in for further services in the foreign currency exchange market. And, do share your feedback on the experience you had with us.
submitted by sudeepkurup to u/sudeepkurup [link] [comments]

Tax on Foreign Exchange Conversion Service under GST

Tax on Foreign Exchange Conversion Service under GST
The implementation of GST (Goods And Service Tax) on July 1, 2017 has revised the tax structure of transactions on several goods and services, including forex services in India. The revised rates for forex services come as a welcome move as the taxes often lie between 0.05% to 0.18% of the total forex transaction. When partaking in any kind of foreign exchange services like currency exchange, money transfer, or buying a forex card, one is only expected to pay the GST; and as per the directive from the Government of India, one is expected to pay 18% on the forex transactions that comes under the taxable value bracket.
So what is “taxable value”? Taxable value is the set portion of the transaction upon which tax is levied. This reduces the amount of tax one has to pay on forex services greatly. Currently the government has set up 3 slabs of taxable value, based on the amounts of transactions.
Slab 1: Up To Rs. 1 Lakh: On forex transactions up to Rs. 1 lakh, the taxable value stands at 1%, and the minimum taxable value is at Rs. 250.
Here 1% of Rs. 25,000 is Rs. 250. Thus for transactions up to Rs. 25,000, the taxable value is Rs. 250.
18% of this taxable value (Rs. 250) is a mere Rs. 45.
Hence the minimum tax one has to pay in Slab 1 is Rs. 45.
Similarly, the maximum payable tax is Rs. 180.
Slab 2: Rs. 1 Lakh to Rs. 10 Lakh: In Slab 2, the taxable value is calculated as 1000 + 0.5% of the amount above 1 lakh.
Considering the value of transaction to be Rs. 5 lakh, then
Taxable value = 1000 + (0.5% * 4) = 1000 + 2000 = 3000
Actual tax = 18% of 3000 = Rs. 540.
Similarly, calculating the lower limit (tax on Rs. 1 lakh transaction) and upper limit (tax on Rs. 10 lakh transaction), we get the lower and upper limit of taxes for Slab 2, which is Rs. 180 and Rs. 990, respectively.
To know more about Service Tax on Forex Transactions in India, visit source blog.
Source: https://yourexpertguide.wordpress.com/2019/04/12/tax-you-have-to-pay-on-foreign-exchange-transactions-in-india/

https://preview.redd.it/ea33mq8vles21.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=9d6317492a9ee544fb60b392e7fd9b938e10b721
submitted by travelmoneyindia to u/travelmoneyindia [link] [comments]

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The official Bloomberg website offers a wealth of free and subscription based tools and utilities, most offering customized views as per regions/markets.

Symbol Lookup Service:

Introduced couple of years back, Bloomberg Open Symbology tool offers Symbol lookup service and mapping of different symbols (SEDOL, CUSIP, ISIN, Stock exchange ticker, etc.) at global level. Individual traders as well as large investment firms having a need to consolidate data sourced from multiple sources with different symbols use this service. For e.g. a mutual fund company may take 2 different data feeds – one from Bloomberg containing Bloomberg symbol and other from Stock exchange containing local ticker. Symbology service enables cross referencing to validate data across two sources with different tickers.
Apart from the generic Open Symbology service, the widely followed Bloomberg symbols can be accessed through its dedicated symbol search tool.

Bloomberg Professional Products & Services:

The paid professional products and tools available from Bloomberg offer coverage across 360+ exchanges, 24000+ companies, global currency markets, and includes recently launched bitcoin coverage. These products and tools today are used by more than 315,000 subscribers across 175 countries, demonstrating the depth and variety of offerings from Bloomberg.
Bloomberg Market data terminal remains the most saleable product for both individual and enterprise use. A good 2 pager Getting Started Guide is available for introduction to financial analysis tools available within the Bloomberg Terminal. Apart from usual charts, graphs, technical indicators and market data coverage, one of the key selling points of Bloomberg Terminals is its instant messaging feature which enables easy communication across individuals, dedicated workgroups and even Bloomberg representatives for assistance.
Bloomberg Briefs: A dedicated service in the form of digital newsletters for the global financial markets, Bloomberg Brief offers insights into sector or region specific areas in PDF format.
Briefs for following categories are published daily – Bankruptcy & Restructuring, Economics, Economics Asia, Economics Europe, London, Municipal Market and Oil. Publication for other categories is weekly – China, Clean Energy & Carbon, Financial Regulation, Hedge Funds Europe, Hedge Funds, Leveraged Finance, Mergers, Private Equity, Structured Notes and Technical Strategies.
Such wide varieties of tools offered by Bloomberg come with lots of portability. All website based functionality can be accessed through standard browsers on mobiles and tablets, and even professional products offer portability for mobile and remote access through desktops, laptops, tablets and smartphones.

Bloomberg Enterprise Solutions

At the enterprise level, Bloomberg offers dedicated data feeds, pricing, reference and market data, news and information services to meet the needs of large financial enterprises employing financial analysts, traders and researchers. The Bloomberg trading solutions, offer connectivity and integration for buy side and sell side institutional clients. These find usage in complementing the OMS (Order management system), and recent EMS (Execution management system), for trade execution.
N L Dalmia has set up Mumbai’s first Bloomberg Finance Lab with 12 Bloomberg terminals, offering students extremely focused and high end knowledge programs with a high degree of practical learning and on-the-job applicability. Learning mba in mumbai from N L Dalmia is a step towards boosting one's career.
submitted by dipika20 to MBAinIndiaExplained [link] [comments]

The Bloomberg Finance Lab Launched at N L Dalmia Campus Mumbai

The Bloomberg Terminal (aka Bloomberg Professional Services) connects finance professionals to a dynamic network of information, people, and ideas. At the core of this network is the ability to deliver real-time data to finance professionals around the world.
The main value added services provided by Bloomberg Terminal are:
  1. Data
  2. News
  3. Analytics
These services are provided through innovative, proprietary technology, that quickly and accurately provides financial information to individuals and across enterprises around the world.
A world leader in providing market data information across the globe through its websites, apps and dedicated feeds and software products, Bloomberg offers a variety of tools available on free and paid basis, allowing finance professionals to use them in their research, analysis and related trading activities. Bloomberg’s coverage includes all possible financial securities ranging from equities, fixed income, derivatives, commodities, forex and OTC products, across the globe.

Bloomberg website:

The official Bloomberg website offers a wealth of free and subscription based tools and utilities, most offering customized views as per regions/markets.

Symbol Lookup Service:

Introduced couple of years back, Bloomberg Open Symbology tool offers Symbol lookup service and mapping of different symbols (SEDOL, CUSIP, ISIN, Stock exchange ticker, etc.) at global level. Individual traders as well as large investment firms having a need to consolidate data sourced from multiple sources with different symbols use this service. For e.g. a mutual fund company may take 2 different data feeds – one from Bloomberg containing Bloomberg symbol and other from Stock exchange containing local ticker. Symbology service enables cross referencing to validate data across two sources with different tickers.
Apart from the generic Open Symbology service, the widely followed Bloomberg symbols can be accessed through its dedicated symbol search tool.

Bloomberg Professional Products & Services:

The paid professional products and tools available from Bloomberg offer coverage across 360+ exchanges, 24000+ companies, global currency markets, and includes recently launched bitcoin coverage. These products and tools today are used by more than 315,000 subscribers across 175 countries, demonstrating the depth and variety of offerings from Bloomberg.
Bloomberg Market data terminal remains the most saleable product for both individual and enterprise use. A good 2 pager Getting Started Guide is available for introduction to financial analysis tools available within the Bloomberg Terminal. Apart from usual charts, graphs, technical indicators and market data coverage, one of the key selling points of Bloomberg Terminals is its instant messaging feature which enables easy communication across individuals, dedicated workgroups and even Bloomberg representatives for assistance.
Bloomberg Briefs: A dedicated service in the form of digital newsletters for the global financial markets, Bloomberg Brief offers insights into sector or region specific areas in PDF format.
Briefs for following categories are published daily – Bankruptcy & Restructuring, Economics, Economics Asia, Economics Europe, London, Municipal Market and Oil. Publication for other categories is weekly – China, Clean Energy & Carbon, Financial Regulation, Hedge Funds Europe, Hedge Funds, Leveraged Finance, Mergers, Private Equity, Structured Notes and Technical Strategies.
Such wide varieties of tools offered by Bloomberg come with lots of portability. All website based functionality can be accessed through standard browsers on mobiles and tablets, and even professional products offer portability for mobile and remote access through desktops, laptops, tablets and smartphones.

Bloomberg Enterprise Solutions

At the enterprise level, Bloomberg offers dedicated data feeds, pricing, reference and market data, news and information services to meet the needs of large financial enterprises employing financial analysts, traders and researchers. The Bloomberg trading solutions, offer connectivity and integration for buy side and sell side institutional clients. These find usage in complementing the OMS (Order management system), and recent EMS (Execution management system), for trade execution.
NLDIMSR has set up Mumbai’s first Bloomberg Finance Lab with 12 Bloomberg terminals, offering students extremely focused and high end knowledge programs with a high degree of practical learning and on-the-job applicability.
submitted by dipika20 to MBAIndia [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: AskEconomics posts from 2018-08-22 to 2018-11-12 07:20 PDT

Period: 82.02 days
Submissions Comments
Total 979 6319
Rate (per day) 11.94 76.69
Unique Redditors 688 1060
Combined Score 5907 19076

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 322 points, 37 submissions: benjaminikuta
    1. So, what's the difference between this new trade deal with Mexico and Canada and the old one, and what are the implications? (71 points, 12 comments)
    2. The EU is considering making product life expectancy a mandatory piece of info for consumer electronics. What would the economic implications of that be? (64 points, 24 comments)
    3. Do powerful unions increase wages above the optimal level, or do firms with market power cause imperfect competition in the labor market, causing sub optimal wages? (Or both?) (27 points, 3 comments)
    4. How do economists measure unpaid work? (24 points, 8 comments)
    5. When it is said that someone in a third world country lives on a dollar a day, what does that actually mean? (22 points, 19 comments)
    6. What are some common misconceptions about economics? (14 points, 19 comments)
    7. What would be a better alternative to Bernie's proposal to tax employers of welfare recipients? (14 points, 65 comments)
    8. How effectively can negative externalities be quantified? (10 points, 7 comments)
    9. To what degree has the internet increased the liquidity of the labor market? (7 points, 3 comments)
    10. What happened with the Greek economic crisis? (7 points, 5 comments)
  2. 146 points, 30 submissions: Whynvme
    1. When economists refer to industrialization, does it mean a move from agricultural to manufacturing economy? Is the growth in services a different term? (22 points, 6 comments)
    2. Do economists actually calculate consumer surplus empirically, or is it more of s theoretical concept? (20 points, 5 comments)
    3. If we have cobb douglas preferences, my demand for x is not a function of the price of y. How do substitution effects arise then? (11 points, 6 comments)
    4. Is me making more money than I would necessarily require to work( so more than my 'opportunity wage') for a job an economic inefficiency? or is ineffiency in labor markets a wedge between my marginal revenue product and my wage? (11 points, 3 comments)
    5. why is ceteris paribus important for analyzing/thinking about the world? (11 points, 7 comments)
    6. Why does inflation necessarily mean wages will be increasing too? (6 points, 3 comments)
    7. some basic macro questions (6 points, 2 comments)
    8. what is meant by value added? (6 points, 3 comments)
    9. Trying to understand economies of scale, e.g. costco (5 points, 5 comments)
    10. Why would an economy implode long term if there are decreasing returns to scale? (5 points, 15 comments)
  3. 95 points, 2 submissions: MrDannyOcean
    1. Announcing a new policy direction for /AskEconomics (75 points, 135 comments)
    2. The new rules for AskEconomics are now in place. Please see the details within. (20 points, 20 comments)
  4. 79 points, 7 submissions: Fart_Gas
    1. Is free public transport a good idea? (41 points, 20 comments)
    2. Will Venezuela's plummeting economy make it a good choice for low-wage industries? (17 points, 8 comments)
    3. What might cause sudden inflation? (8 points, 2 comments)
    4. Why do some countries without hyperinflation use a foreign currency in everyday life? (8 points, 3 comments)
    5. Has any country tried reducing the minimum wage, and ended up with a good result from it? (3 points, 8 comments)
    6. Do boycotts really work? (1 point, 3 comments)
    7. Why do some businesses sponsor sporting teams in countries they don't operate in, and that they don't plan to expand to in the foreseeable future? (1 point, 1 comment)
  5. 66 points, 7 submissions: FrankVillain
    1. Can the Euro become the global currency for trade? (17 points, 3 comments)
    2. Is China still considered a centrally planned economy? (16 points, 4 comments)
    3. Ressources on the Soviet industrial failures due to poor economics? (14 points, 2 comments)
    4. What is the reason behind France's high unemployment rate? (9 points, 14 comments)
    5. About Land Value Tax & Single Tax: how would it affect farmers and those of them who own their land? (7 points, 3 comments)
    6. Does welfare policies contribute to inflation? (2 points, 1 comment)
    7. If a Bitcoin is worth $1 000 000 and some persons like Satoshi have one or more millions of it... what power do they have? Can they disrupt the financial system with the huge amount of dollars that they have? (1 point, 8 comments)
  6. 66 points, 1 submission: imadeadinside
    1. If Bruce Wayne was revealed as Batman, would stock prices and sales skyrocket or plummet for Wayne Enterprises (66 points, 16 comments)
  7. 64 points, 6 submissions: Serpenthrope
    1. Have there been any serious proposals for economic systems that don't use money? (23 points, 67 comments)
    2. Could a company ever become quality-control for a market in which they're competing, assuming no government interference? (16 points, 4 comments)
    3. Is there a formal name for this? (15 points, 6 comments)
    4. Why are second-hand clothing donations fundamentally different from other types of imports? (5 points, 1 comment)
    5. I saw this article on a UN report calling for the dismantling of Capitalism to stop Global Warming, and was wondering what most economists think of the claims? (3 points, 4 comments)
    6. Peter Navarro and Lyndon Larouche? (2 points, 1 comment)
  8. 62 points, 2 submissions: JeffGotSwags
    1. What are the most commonly held misconceptions about economics among people with at least some background? (36 points, 38 comments)
    2. How did the financial crisis affect the demand for economists? (26 points, 5 comments)
  9. 61 points, 11 submissions: Chumbaka
    1. Can someone explain M0 , M1 and M2 to me? (13 points, 2 comments)
    2. Can anyone explain why this happens and what it means? (11 points, 3 comments)
    3. Can a monopoly also be a monopsony? (10 points, 13 comments)
    4. Why is inflation and deflation bad? (10 points, 8 comments)
    5. Stupid question but : Why does printing lots of money lead to inflation? (5 points, 14 comments)
    6. Why aren't all banks Full Reserve Banking? (5 points, 3 comments)
    7. What does this stock market fall mean to the economy as a whole? (4 points, 4 comments)
    8. How would an universal free market deal with situations like NK? (3 points, 21 comments)
    9. How do I pick an economist ideology to support? (0 points, 3 comments)
    10. Is investing in Forex worth it? (0 points, 15 comments)
  10. 60 points, 6 submissions: Jollygood156
    1. Why didn't quantitative easing + low interest rates raise inflation high? (20 points, 36 comments)
    2. How do we actually refute MMT? (14 points, 68 comments)
    3. Tax Cuts boost Consumption, but the growth is short term while investments are long term. Why? (12 points, 7 comments)
    4. How exactly are land value taxes calculated? (6 points, 3 comments)
    5. What is Nominal GDP targeting and why do so many people advocate for it? (5 points, 16 comments)
    6. What even is Austerity? (3 points, 3 comments)
  11. 49 points, 1 submission: Akehc99
    1. Those who went into the job market after an Econ Undergrad, what do you do and briefly what does it entail? (49 points, 27 comments)
  12. 48 points, 1 submission: Traveledfarwestward
    1. What do most Economists think about The Economist? (48 points, 26 comments)
  13. 48 points, 1 submission: piltonpfizerwallace
    1. What would happen if the US printed $12.3 trillion tomorrow and paid off all of its debt? (48 points, 31 comments)
  14. 47 points, 6 submissions: lalze123
    1. Will Bernie's "STOP BEZOS" plan lower the opportunity cost of hiring non-poor workers, thereby harming poor workers? (19 points, 15 comments)
    2. What does the current economic literature say about the effects of net neutrality? (14 points, 0 comments)
    3. What government programs have been empirically proven to help displaced workers from import competition? (8 points, 0 comments)
    4. By how much does lowering the budget deficit lower the trade deficit? (5 points, 4 comments)
    5. What are some good studies analyzing the difference in efficiency between markets and central planning? (1 point, 1 comment)
    6. Is the study below reliable? (0 points, 3 comments)
  15. 45 points, 1 submission: gh0bs
    1. Why does the economy have to be a series of bubbles and bursts/corrections, rather than a sustained gradual growth? (45 points, 32 comments)
  16. 42 points, 1 submission: Turnt_Up_For_What
    1. You've just been declared supreme potentate of Venezuela. Now how do you fix the economy? (42 points, 24 comments)
  17. 41 points, 1 submission: Crane_Train
    1. How could Venezuela fix its economy? (41 points, 19 comments)
  18. 41 points, 1 submission: TheHoleInMoi
    1. Are there any papers/solid arguments about the benefits of having more local business as opposed to corporate consolidation? (41 points, 2 comments)
  19. 39 points, 5 submissions: UyhAEqbnp
    1. Does income inequality really matter? (19 points, 39 comments)
    2. What happens when there's a surplus of labour? Can there ever be a point where the wages earned are less than the cost of living? (10 points, 2 comments)
    3. Several questions (4 points, 4 comments)
    4. "Keeping seniors from retiring does not boost wages via aggregate demand" (3 points, 5 comments)
    5. Is Okun's Law valid? (3 points, 3 comments)
  20. 39 points, 4 submissions: justinVOLuntary
    1. Best resource on the financial crisis of 2008 (17 points, 7 comments)
    2. Blogs? (11 points, 5 comments)
    3. Econ Internship (7 points, 5 comments)
    4. Not sure if this is the kind of question I should be asking here. I’m an Undergrad Econ major and I’m looking for reading recommendations. Anything from economic theory, history, current research, etc. Main interest is Macro. Thanks (4 points, 5 comments)
  21. 39 points, 2 submissions: ConditionalDew
    1. How much would the iPhone be if it was made in the US? (37 points, 15 comments)
    2. Who are some famous people/celebrities that were economics majors? (2 points, 2 comments)
  22. 39 points, 1 submission: rangerlinks
    1. Who are the best economist to follow on Twitter? (39 points, 16 comments)
  23. 36 points, 5 submissions: CanadianAsshole1
    1. If free trade is so good, then why do countries insist on making trade deals? Why can't we just abolish all tariffs? (18 points, 11 comments)
    2. If climate change is such a huge problem, then why aren't countries utilizing nuclear energy more? (8 points, 17 comments)
    3. Do I understand the problem with"trickle-down" economics correctly? (6 points, 38 comments)
    4. How much of the Reagan administration's deficits could be attributed to increased defense spending? (3 points, 3 comments)
    5. If automation will result in less jobs, then shouldn't the government stop incentivizing childbirth through tax credits and stop immigration? (1 point, 12 comments)
  24. 35 points, 7 submissions: MedStudent-96
    1. Is my textbook wrong? (11 points, 8 comments)
    2. Quasi-convexity of the Indirect Utility Function? (9 points, 14 comments)
    3. Consumer Demand Interpretation for Cobb Douglas-Non Convex to Origin. (4 points, 6 comments)
    4. Do monopolies produce the same as a competitive firm in the long run? (4 points, 8 comments)
    5. Interpretation of Lagrange Multipliers for Consumer (4 points, 4 comments)
    6. Optimisation when MRTS > price ratio (2 points, 7 comments)
    7. Help with the Partial Derivative of the Marginal Cost Function. (1 point, 10 comments)
  25. 35 points, 1 submission: grate1438
    1. Why do Croatians receieve so much more through their pension than their working wage? (35 points, 8 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. BainCapitalist (2626 points, 648 comments)
  2. Calvo_fairy (947 points, 232 comments)
  3. smalleconomist (885 points, 255 comments)
  4. RobThorpe (776 points, 259 comments)
  5. zzzzz94 (577 points, 111 comments)
  6. Cross_Keynesian (520 points, 108 comments)
  7. Integralds (418 points, 68 comments)
  8. penguin_rider222 (395 points, 116 comments)
  9. whyrat (362 points, 69 comments)
  10. bbqroast (319 points, 74 comments)
  11. MrDannyOcean (314 points, 54 comments)
  12. isntanywhere (207 points, 63 comments)
  13. RedditUser91805 (189 points, 28 comments)
  14. CapitalismAndFreedom (176 points, 68 comments)
  15. benjaminikuta (171 points, 112 comments)
  16. LucasCritique (162 points, 33 comments)
  17. raptorman556 (157 points, 44 comments)
  18. lawrencekhoo (156 points, 22 comments)
  19. daokedao4 (131 points, 16 comments)
  20. Yankee9204 (121 points, 15 comments)
  21. roboczar (112 points, 20 comments)
  22. RegulatoryCapture (109 points, 23 comments)
  23. ecolonomist (105 points, 45 comments)
  24. TheoryOfSomething (102 points, 9 comments)
  25. Forgot_the_Jacobian (97 points, 31 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. Announcing a new policy direction for /AskEconomics by MrDannyOcean (75 points, 135 comments)
  2. So, what's the difference between this new trade deal with Mexico and Canada and the old one, and what are the implications? by benjaminikuta (71 points, 12 comments)
  3. If Bruce Wayne was revealed as Batman, would stock prices and sales skyrocket or plummet for Wayne Enterprises by imadeadinside (66 points, 16 comments)
  4. The EU is considering making product life expectancy a mandatory piece of info for consumer electronics. What would the economic implications of that be? by benjaminikuta (64 points, 24 comments)
  5. Those who went into the job market after an Econ Undergrad, what do you do and briefly what does it entail? by Akehc99 (49 points, 27 comments)
  6. What would happen if the US printed $12.3 trillion tomorrow and paid off all of its debt? by piltonpfizerwallace (48 points, 31 comments)
  7. What do most Economists think about The Economist? by Traveledfarwestward (48 points, 26 comments)
  8. Why does the economy have to be a series of bubbles and bursts/corrections, rather than a sustained gradual growth? by gh0bs (45 points, 32 comments)
  9. What is the difference in knowledge between academic economists(Krugman, Acemoglu, Mankiw etc) and hedge fund managers and the like(Soros, James Simons)? by deleted (43 points, 5 comments)
  10. You've just been declared supreme potentate of Venezuela. Now how do you fix the economy? by Turnt_Up_For_What (42 points, 24 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 62 points: Calvo_fairy's comment in Milton Friedman is well respected by many economists, why aren't there more Libertarians?
  2. 62 points: Calvo_fairy's comment in Milton Friedman is well respected by many economists, why aren't there more Libertarians?
  3. 59 points: RedditUser91805's comment in The EU is considering making product life expectancy a mandatory piece of info for consumer electronics. What would the economic implications of that be?
  4. 58 points: arctigos's comment in What do most Economists think about The Economist?
  5. 55 points: hbtn's comment in Why are Little Caesar's cheese pizzas the same price as its pepperoni pizzas?
  6. 54 points: Calvo_fairy's comment in Could someone explain the wage gap and whether it's a myth or not.
  7. 51 points: Calvo_fairy's comment in If Bruce Wayne was revealed as Batman, would stock prices and sales skyrocket or plummet for Wayne Enterprises
  8. 51 points: RedditUser91805's comment in You've just been declared supreme potentate of Venezuela. Now how do you fix the economy?
  9. 51 points: smalleconomist's comment in What are the most commonly held misconceptions about economics among people with at least some background?
  10. 49 points: TheoryOfSomething's comment in Which parts of Marxism are theoretically dependent on the labor theory of value and which are not?
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

Forex copycat software.

Greetings traders. First things first. I know nothing.
Sometimes, however, I get this weird feeling like I want to spend money on things I have little understanding and or control.
Like playing the lottery (which is basically just tax for dimwitted people like me who can't calculate statistics).
Now that I have properly introduced myself as a complete idiot. I think I will finally ask a question.
Is there a way that I could pay - let us say 100$ out of curiosities sake - for some automatic software service that would mimic the behavior of a seasoned ForeX trader? I would then share the benefits/losses in accordance with said trader. I would have to have the ability to cash out/in eventually.
Is there such a wonderful platform in existences and in the odd case there are many... What would you recommend?
best wishes,
Heiðar Högni
submitted by heidarhogni to Forex [link] [comments]

Crisis Killer Review | Thinking Of Buying ? Don’t !

A trading robot that can make you honestly Big Time profits without worrying that you play on the chances of winning! Come on, guys – If only it were that simple … ..
We do not know about you, but we pretty tired of seeing robots, training programs and made every week by some of the largest operators in the game plans. And when we came across the Crisis Killer then we must admit that we started automatically to contract with a cynicism …
Crisis Killer Review : Is This Forex robot really good?
However, this bot is written by a guy who made some serious money trading the markets, not to mention the fact that the Crisis Killer is the program that got Europe in turmoil right now. So we realized that we definitely need to get down and dirty with the program before we made any decisions about whether the program is a saint or a sinner.
Read on to discover exactly what we discovered …
What you get for your money?
Thus, as we have already stated, the Crisis Killer is a trading robot which, according to Thomas, its creator, is virtually guaranteed to double your money. And it works as follows:
• It works on real money: with a deposit from 100,000 euros (you do not need to have that amount to trade, so do not panic …). The guy has invested this amount of his own money to show his confidence in the work of the system. And in two months, it shows definitive proof to double that 200 – pretty impressive the way you look at it.
• A never done before – high reward low risk methodology: this is provided by the ability of the robot to recognize when a business begins to falter in less than 5 milliseconds. He opened new positions in order to absorb the bad trade with those positive trend.
• The high trading activity: having between 10 and 30 jobs open at any given time, the bot can accurately measure the risks and rewards. We can therefore combine the value of transactions, cross-checking and refining them in the optimum position to close them all in a split second … and win big!
• Failure of 3-layer proof safety net: The bot uses the taxes myfxchoice through three security reasons. 1) they have a minimum latency between the control and order execution (under 5 milliseconds), 2) they have one of the best reputations around customer satisfaction and c) they give priority support refine the bot if necessary. [Wplapdance name = "CrisisKiller"]
• Small compliant repository: you can trade with as little as $ 100 game system still works the same (and, in fact, with small amounts system actually has a slightly higher winning percentage rate) .- the automatic installation: easy to install and use, with a few clicks of your mouse.
What Is Crisis Killer Software ?
A major drawback of many robots and trading systems is that you must have the knowledge to start. But with the Crisis Killer even a novice can literally plug it in, set up and start making money. Male or female, young or old, rich or poor, this is a program that has no boundaries and will work for everyone.
But do not make the mistake of thinking that this is only for those who know nothing of the negotiations, because nothing could be further from the truth. Implement this little baby, give her a chance to show you what it's like to do and you money before you know it.
Which is Created By The Program?
Just go by the name "Thomas", the creator of the Crisis Killer is a carrier IQ of 167 and the ability to calculate complex literally at the speed of light numerical equations. And he used that gift since his teens, and boy did companies billions of dollars sit up and take note. Red Bull, Magna and voestalpine are some of the conglomerates that have put their trust in Thomas, and his years of work enabled him to create a model of a formula that makes money trading the markets – again and again and again …
Pros - Crisis Killer Review :
• Killer crisis is simple to understand, install and start using. In fact, it is so simple that your five year old son or daughter could probably manage crisis … crissis killer killer review Is This Forex robot really good?
• There is no initial purchase cost of the crisis Killer. You literally get a business license at no cost, and is the creator makes his money by the real estate commission on your winning trades. This means that there is no money taken from your income – period!
• Because the benefits for its creator come from brokerage service (not your pocket), then this guy NEEDS crisis killer working for you. Because the more successful you are, the more money wins – a win-win situation all around.
• The program comes with a 100%, 60 day money back guarantee on the activation fee (the tiny fee you pay to run your business set up. This is the only amount you pay for what either, and even that is covered for two incredible month!
Cons - Crisis Killer Review :
• So the biggest "con" is that it's a limited supply, and when the total take of the crisis killer has been reached then it will be withdrawn. No warning, no last chances, no countdown 24 hours – it'll just be there. So if you want then you need to take the plunge and go for it, because tomorrow it might not be there. The Bottom Line
Well, well, well … We certainly did not expect to get to this point and did as crisis killer. Because, trust us, we had serious doubts about this program before we tried. But we definitely need to eat a huge dose of humble pie, because this little baby actually does what it says on the box (and it is a very rare thing when it comes to trading robots, believe us …).
Of course, it can not remove 100% of the risk – no program can (and when we find that there is by writing reviews penthouse in Monte Carlo), but as long as you never risk more than you can afford to lose, then we think you will be very happy with the results that the crisis brings killer.
Because it certainly gets the thumbs up from us, that's for sure …
submitted by nurjahann to crisiss [link] [comments]

JPMorgan Bitcoin Analyst Report Part 2 - Full Text (sorry, no graphs)

Part 1: http://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/1xmo61/jpmorgan_bitcoin_analyst_report_part_1_full_text/ Part 3: http://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/1xmoax/jpmorgan_bitcoin_analyst_report_part_3_full_text/
MAKING MONEY THE OLD FASHIONED WAY
A discussion of bitcoin should begin with an Economics 101 refresher on money – what it is, how it is created and why we hold it. The classic definition of money is anything that serves as medium of exchange, unit of account and store of value. A medium of exchange can be anything deliverable for a good or service, whether a mundane object, a precious metal or piece of paper. In allcases, users value the medium because employing it is more efficient than bartering. A unit of account is a way of measuring value from a common reference point, thus also facilitating commerce because goods can be compared more easily. (Recall the euro’s usefulness in this regard since now prices in Europe are comparable across 18 countries.) A store of value is just a way of holding wealth until it is exchanged for goods and services or lent or given to someone else.
For centuries precious metals, or paper currencies convertible into metal at a fixed rate, served these three functions. But followers of financial history know the limitation of a system based on a fixed or slow-growing money supply: it imposes uncomfortable financial discipline on governments, households and corporates.
Hence the progressive debasement of pure gold coins with alloys; the global abandonment of the gold standard during the financial strains during World War I; and the US government’s suspension of the dollar’s gold convertibility given fiscal and balance of payments pressure from the Vietnam War.
Today most countries employ fiat currencies, or paper and coins with no intrinsic worth whose perceived value stems from government declaration (or fiat) collective belief. The government creates demand for a currency by declaring it legal tender, meaning it must be accepted as payment for all debts and it will be used in any transactions between the government and other agents.
Consumers and corporates accept this fiat currency because it is a requirement for settling all debts public (paying taxes) and private. The government attempts to guard the value of money by maintaining a monopoly on its production to avoid counterfeiting, and by establishing a central bank with a mandate to manage its supply responsibly over time.
While this system may sound like blithe existence in The Matrix, this relationship amongst government, central bank, households, corporates and fiat currencies is much more efficient than an alternative like barter. It also makes macroeconomic shocks much easier to manage than an alternative like the gold standard (recall the deflation of the Great Depression and more recently peripheral Europe).
BITCOIN AS BETTER MONEY
Bitcoin proposes an alternative, however. If – despite their mandates – the world's biggest central banks risk inflation and currency debasement via the rapid expansion of their balance sheets, and if even European governments still impose capital controls (Cyprus), couldn’t a non-state entity more responsibly supply a fiat-like currency to the world? And if this currency were created and exchanged digitally amongst peers of consumers and corporates, it would have the additional advantage of avoiding the fees imposed by financial intermediaries as well as the loss of privacy inherent in third-party payments systems. Hence the purported appeal of a virtual currency: a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value without the alleged recklessness, capriciousness, siphoning and snooping inherent in traditional systems. Even leaving aside this caricature of bitcoin's underlying philosophy, there is something compelling about the idea.
Simple in theory, but more complex in practice. Consider the infrastructure of a traditional monetary and payments system to highlight what bitcoin attempts to replace. A traditional financial system is a national network comprising a central bank owned by a government, which creates money by physically printing currency and minting coins, or by electronically creating bank reservess. That money is used by households, consumers and the government to facilitate trade and investment via a payments system of banks and other financial intermediaries (think PayPal, Visa, Western Union and in some countries, the post office). Financial intermediaries provide numerous services of varying complexity, but their role in the payments system is simple: verify that Customer A has sufficient funds to pay Customer B, then securely transfer ownership of that money between accounts. For assuming that verification and transfer risk, intermediaries levy a fee.
Bitcoin performs these functions of money creation, payment verification and fund transfer quite differently. Its network is international and comprises miners who create the currency and users who obtain the currency to buy goods and services. There is no central monetary authority or regulator. There is also no financial intermediary for exchanging bitcoins for real products. The closest to an intermediary is an exchanger who will swap bitcoins for traditional fiat currencies like dollars, euros, yen or renminbi, like a forex dealer or futures exchange.7
Miners create bitcoins electronically by solving a mathematical algorithm released in 2009 by an unidentified programmer (or perhaps group of programmers) known by the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. Anyone can be a miner; they simply need to download the software required to interact with others on the network, and acquire hardware powerful enough to run the multitudinous calculations to solve the algorithm. Since the technology required to solve an increasingly complex algorithm grows over time, miners will probably be programming specialists rather than the average consumer or businessperson.
Any individual or business can be a bitcoin user, however, by establishing an electronic account know as a wallet. This wallet is associated with a user's electronic address but not to any other identifying information such as their name, phone number or physical address. Thus bitcoin is a pseudonymous system rather than an anonymous one in that every user is known by something other than the legal names associated with traditional banking.
To provide security as well as transact with other users, bitcoin employs cryptography which assigns two keys (alphanumeric codes) to each account – a private one known only to them and a public one known to all other users in the network. When two users wish to transact, they send a message to the network using their public keys signed by their private keys. This transaction forms part of a block chain or bundle of transactions entirely in the public domain along with all other historical bitcoin transactions performed in the network.
Miners compete to verify that this trade is authentic via algorithms to confirm that indeed a user possesses the bitcoin and did not previously spend it. Programmers (miners) who solve the equations to authenticate a block of transactions receive 25 bitcoins increasing the money supply. Whenever the algorithm is solved, it becomes computationally more difficult so that the next attempt requires more time an effort (i.e. computing power). This feedback mechanism limits the growth rate of bitcoin supply, so is somewhat analogous to the production constraint on gold. The more that is mined, the greater the requirement to dig deeper pits, the greater effort required to extract the marginal ounce and the higher the price of the marginal ounce (or coin). The stock of bitcoins is arbitrarily set at 21 million units to be mined by 2140, 12 million of which have already been mined. At early-February market prices of about $700 per unit, the current bitcoin money supply has a value of about $8.5bn, equivalent to the market capitalisation of the Mauritius Stock Exchange.
As complicated as this process is, it begins to address several acknowledged deficiencies of fiat currencies. It provides steady, predictable growth in the money supply. It eliminates the risk of capital controls because the network lacks a central authority. It provides verification of fund balances to avoid fraud. And it eliminates or at least significantly reduces transaction costs for payments because verifiers are rewarded through bitcoin creation. As fanciful – and indeed Matrix-like – as this bitcoin creation system sounds, perhaps it requires no more suspended disbelief than the traditional fiat system in which a government declares paper to have value and a central bank or national mint thus issues the specie. One doesn’t need to be the caricatured miscreant, Austrian economist or anarchist to appreciate the appeal of such a system.
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How to make money on the Forex market? - YouTube

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